The leaves are trifoliate with ovate leaflets, 4-10 cm long and 2-7 cm wide. OPV* Hybrids. Field Crops. In some legumes, the stamens and stigma are enclosed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is ensured. usually not more than five viable seeds are produced on one plant. Viable seeds were obtained from the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. mungo, V. radiata x V. umbellata and V. mungo x V. angularis. The genus Vigna comprises more than 200 species of which 7 are of tremendous agronomic importance. Mature seed colors can be yellow, brown, mottled black or green, depending upon variety. Six different pollination sequences were compared using, We have successfully developed a method to induce early in vitro flowering of plantlets in tropical Dendrobium hybrids (Hee et al. In addition, the hybrid exhibited two novel traits — the presence of racemose inflorescence and plant regeneration ability — not present in the parents. Comparison of domestication-related QTLs of the zombi pea with those of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), mungbean (Vigna radiata) and rice bean (Vigna umbellata) revealed that there was conservation of some QTLs for seed size, pod size and leaf size between zombi pea and cowpea and that QTLs associated with seed size (weight, length, width and thickness) in each species were clustered on same linkage. Modes of Pollination The process by which pollen grains are transferred from anthers to stigma is referred as pollination. Key words : Black gram, EMS, gamma rays, germination, survival, pollen sterility. P.M. A.M.i cent- age of total in Complete hybrid sterility was found in the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. umbellata, V. radiata x V. angularis and V. mungo x V. angularis; while reduced fertility was observed for the interspecific hybrids of V. radiata x V. mungo, V. umbellata x V. angularis and V. angularis x V. umbellata. Such situation is found in tomato and brinjal. The green grams are the most commonly grown in Kenya. One of these seeds germinated and a partly fertile interspecific hybrid was obtained. Pollen from the red leaf parent contributed a smaller percentage of progeny (18%) compared with that from the white flesh (44%) or glandular leaf (38%) parents. A true‐breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Genetics of domestication have been investigated in most of cultivated Vigna crops by means of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. To work out the mode of pollination in a given crop and extent of natural out-crossing.Prediction of performance of double cross hybrids. Centre, When mulberry flowers were exposed to eight different colours of light and also white from flowering to fruit harvest, seed set was higher in red and orange and less in black (darkness). radiata x V. umbellata, by using intraspecific hybrid as parents. Examples are green-gram, black-gram, soybean, chickpea and pea. 2007; Sim et al. As the black gram seed coat is not hard, it germinates earlier. mungo L.). ... Green gram, Black gram, Rice, Wheat, Groundnut, Soybean. From these results, we suggested that three points for breeding programme of Acacia hybrids, namely, availability of each reciprocal crossing, caution for using A. auriculiformis clones in interspecific pollination and possibility of self-compatibility by tube pollination. Seedling development is described from seed germination to the establishment of several leaves on the seedling. When pollination and fertilization occur in unopened flower bud, it is known as cleistogamy. Interspecific crossability among four species of Vigna, namely, V. radiata (mungbean),V. mungo (black gram), V. umbellata (rice bean) and V. angularis (adzuki bean), was investigated. Seed Propagated Rice, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Chickpea, Pea, Cowpea, Lentil, Green gram, Black gram, Soybean, Common bean, Moth Such situation is found in tomato and brinjal. Black gram : Country: India : Description: The mutant variety Co 4 was officialy approved in 1978. Seed germination was highest with blue, red by violet and white and poor with pink. (1982), L. culinaris × L. tomentosus Ladizinsky and Abbo (1993) L. culinaris × L. ervoides Cohen et al. Grams could be green, black or yellow in colour. Selection from Aduthurai local In addition, the hybrid exhibited two novel traits — the presence of racemose inflorescence and plant regeneration ability — not present in the parents. Classification of crop plants based on mode of pollination and mode of reproduction Mode of pollination and reproduction Examples of crop plants A. Autogamous Species 1. The flower opens in the morning at 7 am. (1985), Goshen et al. A derivative line, KUG114, recorded yield superiority of 39.45% over the check cultivar ‘Mash338’ on the average of 14 multilocation research trials. Difficulties related to obtaining hybrids in grain legumes, and Phaseolus L. in particular, are reported in this research. Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is an dimportant pulse crop occupying unique position in Indian agriculture. Anthesis time 1 am – 4 am. Jpn. Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) In the succeeding generations the hybrid condition gives way to pure breeding as a result of natural self-pollination, and families derived from different F2 plants begin to display their unique character. Its hybridity was confirmed at the seedling stage based on the presence of the green epicotyl colour of the adzuki bean. The plants are short with … Allogamy: Development of seed by cross pollination is called allogamy. When they are pre-zygotic, the use of growth regulators during pollination is recommended. Pulses: Redgram and Bengal gram, Green gram, Black gram and Cowpea; Soybean, Horse gram and Lab-lab. 2) Study of germplasm of various crops. Pollen germination percentage and number of flowers for each clone were also investigated. 2007, 2008). They offer the means of creating a wide genotypic variability. Artificial pollination was also conducted on the intraspecific pollination of each clone. Inheritance of protruded stigma in black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] was investigated in the F₁, F₂, and F₃ generations of four crosses and their reciprocals involving a natural flower mutant with its parent genotype (IPU 99-167) and three other genotypes (PLU 710, Type 9, and Barabanki local). Al-Yasiri, S. A., and D. P. Coyne, 1966: Interspeci®c hybridization in the genus Phaseolus. 3) Study of floral structure of self pollinated crops. However, despite development of several improved cultivars in different Vigna crops, biotic and abiotic stresses still remain the major constraints in realizing their true yield potential. Varieties. ii. It refers to unisexual flowers. Since three of the five QTLs, including the largest effect QTL, detected for SDNPPD were mapped to genome regions that showed high segregation distortion, those QTLs may be associated with genetic compatibility and fertility, and thus seed production.